O Clavis
The fourth of the O Antiphons used at Vespers during the last seven days of Advent.

1192
King Richard I of England is captured and imprisoned while on his way home to England from the Third Crusade.

1810
Napoleon Bonaparte monopolizes the tobacco industry in France.

1860

South Carolina becomes the first U.S. state to secede from the Union.

1898
Actress Irene Dunne born in Louisville, Kentucky.
She was known as the best actress never to win an Academy Award.
She was nominated five times for Best Actress.

1946
Poet Andrei Codrescu born in the Carpathian Mountains of Romania.


The Christmas film It's a Wonderful Life is first released in New York City.


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